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I opted for an “LED badge” which is a small scrolling message board, purchased on ebay for В. By sending different messages with different parameters (brightness, scroll speed, direction and “loop” which is a marquee effect) I gleaned the following about the protocol: The first item is a 6- byte startup packet “Ahello”This. В must be followed by a short delay (1. The next 4. 8 bytes contain the message parameters and the number of bitmap. В packets. This. В must be followed by a delay of at least 8.
The bitmap packets follow, 1. The parameter section can be adjusted as follows: Byte 0 (the first byte of the parameter packet) has the brightness in bits 2- 0. В Value 0 is the brightest and 3 the dimmest.
Byte 2 has the following. Bit 7 is set for the marquee effect. Bits 6- 4 contain the speed from 0 (slow) to 7 (fast)Bits 2- 0 contain the direction (0 is “move to left”)Byte 1. В For some strange reason, this value is repeated in bytes 1. The bitmap packets are 1.
Вебинар "Система Open Badges в профессиональных сообществах учителей". LED badge / светодиодный бейдж.
В The first byte of the first such packet represents the first 8 dots starting at the top- left of the image being sent, with a “1” representing a lit LED. В Bit 7 in that byte is the top- left dot, and bit 6 is the one to its right, etc.
В The next byte in the packet is for the next 8 dots. В to the right of the first 8, assuming the image is wider than 8 bytes. В in other words, the image is scanned one row at a time from top to bottom, and is sent in 1.
В The smallest possible image then would consist of 1 bitmap packet, representing 1. So, with the protocol understood, I needed to port this functionality to Linux on the Raspberry Pi. В I investigated some Linux programs that can render text as suitable binary dot patterns, such as the strangely named “toilet” program, but the resulting images weren’t as easy to read as ones generated from the Windows program. В So, I opted for a 2- stage approach; I wrote a Delphi Windows program to build a nice clear character set and then copied the result into a C program on the Pi that can use it to render text before sending it to the display. В To make the job slightly easier, I had the Delphi program generate actual C source code, like so: struct TCharacter. В The badge appears as /dev/tty. USB0 and it’s a simple task to open that port, set the baud rate, switch off output processing (we’re sending binary data so we don’t want CR/LF conversions etc!) and to send the data.
В However, this particular badge only displays the message once, and then switches to “charge mode” where it dims the display and shows a battery charge graphic; it only shows the message continuously when unplugged from USB! В This behaviour is not useful for any application that wants to update the message and then display it for a while before changing the message.
So, I took the display apart to see what I could find: Unsurprisingly, there’s a Prolific USB- serial converter, with the serial Rx and Tx pins connecting to Tx and Rx on the LPC1. В ARM Cortex- Mo processor. В There’s also a Microchip Li. Po charge controller, and of course a large matrix of SMD LEDs.
The first thing I wanted to do was bypass the USB interface, since it’s ugly to have a large USB plug sticking out the side of a fairly small display. В Pin 1 on the PL2. Tx pin that sends data to the CPU, so I carefully lifted that pin with a scalpel and soldering iron. В Conveniently, the track goes to a relatively large pad labelled “Rx” so I soldered a wire to that for connection to the serial Tx line on the Pi GPIO header.
В With this and a GND wire connected I could happily program the badge from the Pi. В Finally, I connected 5. V from the Pi to the 5. V USB line on the badge (the pad for a missing D4 component was ideal for this). However, there was a problem. В As mentioned earlier, the badge’s firmware “knows” whether the device is externally powered or not.
В It does this by taking the USB 5. V line, passing it through a potential divider to drop to about 3. V, and then takes that to a digital input pin on the ARM processor. В The firmware then does one of the following 2 things, both undesirable, depending on the state of that pin: High (USB connected) – Displays the message once, then enters charge mode. Low (Disconnected) – Resets, displaying a startup logo, then displays the message continuously. So the second scenario is better, but means that every time the Pi changes the message, there’s a delay whilst the startup logo is shown.
В However, a combination of the above would be good – pretend that USB is connected so the message appears quickly and then, before it stops scrolling and enters charge mode, pretend that USB is disconnected. To do this, I removed the potential divider and connected the ARM’s input pin directly to a GPIO pin on the Pi. В Here’s the modified board with all 4 wires (5. V, 0. V, Serial Data, GPIO) connected: The required sequence is then: Raise that pin high. Send the message. Wait a moment for the message to appear.
Drop that pin low. I used the Wiring Pi GPIO program to test this, and I’ll soon integrate the pin control into my program with the Wiring. Pi library. Here’s a short video showing the badge in operation, with the Pi updating the message: And finally, here’s the badge mounted on a Pi case with an RS USB Power Bank.